An X-ray, or X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10 picometers to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×10 16 Hz to 3×10 19 Hz) and energies in the range 124 eV to 124 keV.X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically. MAC Reference Standards for X-ray Microanalysis We have approximately 200 standard materials to choose from. All of our standards are suitable for electron-beam energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive X-ray microanalysis systems. All of our standards are polished to a 0.25 micron diamond finish and carbon coated. X-Ray Moto Jacket $59.99. These new machines expose you to less x-rays and develop the 'film' instantaneously. The visit may not be fun but the great part about this new technology is you can usually get a copy of your x-ray just by asking. The down side for the Mac user can be unreadable files and an unusable PC only application.
Dr Rohit Sharma and Dr Yuranga Weerakkody ◉ et al.
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Mach bands or the Mach effect refers to an optical phenomenon from edge enhancement due to lateral inhibition of the retina 2. This is an inbuilt edge enhancement mechanism of the retina, where the edges of darker objects next to lighter objects will appear lighter and vice versa, creating a false shadow 4.
This has been attributed as a source of diagnostic error in radiology:
- a dark halo around a dense breast lesion in mammography 3
- apparent pneumomediastinum - the so-called pseudopneumomediastinum
- mimic a fracture
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Knowledge of the phenomenon may help prevent Mach bands being mistaken for a true abnormality such as pneumomediastinum.
History and etymology
Named after the Austrian physicist Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (1838-1916) who first described it in 1865 5.
- 1. Daffner RH. Visual illusions in computed tomography: phenomena related to Mach effect. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1980;134 (2): 261-4. AJR Am J Roentgenol (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Sugita R, Sugimura E, Itoh M et-al. Pseudolesion of the bile duct caused by flow effect: a diagnostic pitfall of MR cholangiopancreatography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;180 (2): 467-71. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Gordenne WH, Malchair FL. Mach bands in mammography. Radiology. 1988;169 (1): 55-8. Radiology (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Panikkath R, Panikkath D. Mach band sign: an optical illusion. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2014;27 (4): 364-5. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 5. Mach E. Über die Wirkung der räumlichen Verteilung des Lichtreizes auf die Netzhaut [On the effect of the spatial distribution of the light stimulus on the retina]. Sitzungsberichte der mathematischnaturwissenschaftlichen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1865;52:303–322.
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